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タイトル: 重度精神遅滞児の前言語的要求伝達における交渉の不成立 : 大人の応答に対する子供の関心、及び応答の機能の検討
その他のタイトル: Failed Negotiations on Requests of Prelinguistic Children with Severe Mental Retardation : Examining Children's Concern for Adult's Responses and Their Communicative Functions
著者: 大井, 学 link image link image
Ooi, Manabu
発行日: 1993年 6月30日
出版社(者): 日本特殊教育学会
雑誌名: 特殊教育学研究 = The Japanese journal of special education
ISSN: 0387-3374
巻: 31
号: 14
開始ページ: 11
終了ページ: 19
キーワード: 重度精神遅滞
severe mental retardation
prelinguistic communication
抄録: 重度精神遅滞児の非指示身ぶりによる要求伝達において、子供の伝達、大人の解釈の提供、子供の受容という最小限の交渉が不成立となる機構を2つの観点から検討した。1つはターンの交替過程のどこで不成立となるか、もう1つは両者の伝達行動の特徴の影響である。その結果、最小限の交渉が不成立となる事態は、ターンの交替過程のどこでそれが生じるかにより、3つのタイプに区別された。それぞれのタイプの出現頻度には子供による偏りがみられ、それには応答を期待するかどうか、応答を無視するかどうかについての、子供側の伝達行動の違いが関連していた。また、子供の伝達行動の違いは全般的な発達差と関連することが示唆された。また大人の応答に共通性があり、要求身ぶりに対する即時充足や注視などが重度精神遅滞児に対する応答に固有な問題であることが示唆された。また子供が答えられないのに、なぜ大人が言語で確認を求めるのかという疑問が残された。 A previous study by the present author indicated that minimum negotiation on a child's request would fail if the negotiation was between an adult and a prelinguistic child with severe mental retardation. "Minimum negotiation" means a chain of three turns consisting of the child's communicative attempt, the adult's offering an interpretation of it, and the child's expressing acceptance of what was offered. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of this failure. Data from four adult-child dyadic interactions in which the child requested an object or action were analyzed in terms of the child's concern for the adult's responses and their communicative functions. The child's concern for the adult's responses was examined in terms of the direction of the child's gaze during the initial gesture and turn floor provision after that, and the topography of the child's mand behavior after the adult's response, including direct action, handling, repetition of an initial gesture such as hand pressing, and addition of the other gestures. The adult's responses were classified into immediate satisfaction of the child's demand, looking at the child, and verbal responses. Verbal responses were divided into obliging ones, such as a request for confirmation or clarification, and non-obliging ones that acknowledged the child's request or offered some interpretation of it. The results showed three typical patterns of failure: (1) an attempt at negotiation, where the child would not provide an opportunity to respond, so that the adult, accordingly, would satisfy the child's demand immediately after the child's gesture: (2) misfired negotiation, where the child would neglect the adult's response by choosing direct action or handling: and (3) deadlocked negotiation, where the adult would request the child to confirm or clarify the child's demand and the child could not help repeating the initial gesture or using additional gestures, being unable to confirm or clarify. Although two of the four children, who were in a relatively lower developmental status, fell under the first two patterns (one in each), the other two children, whose developmental status was relatively high, showed the third pattern. However, these three patterns could not describe all the cases. For example, the adult frequently satisfied the child's demand immediately, even when the child had provided a response opportunity. Another unanswered question was why the adult would request confirmation or clarification, when it was apparently easy for the adult to recognize the child's difficulty in fulfilling that request. Further investigation is needed to answer these questions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/23856
関連URI: http://www.jase.jp/
資料種別: Journal Article
権利関係: 本文データは日本特殊教育学会の許諾に基づきCiNiiから複製したものである
版表示: publisher

このアイテムを引用あるいはリンクする場合は次の識別子を使用してください。 http://hdl.handle.net/2297/23856



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